Samurai Kriegerin Bujutsu - die traditionellen Kriegskünste
Doch wer waren diese Frauen? jalaprt.co ist dieser Frage auf den Grund gegangen. Die Ehre, sich ein wahrer Samurai-Krieger. Nakano Takeko (中野 竹子, * ; † Oktober ) war eine japanische Kämpferin des Die Legende besagt, dass sie Samurais getötet hat. ZDF: ZDF History: Die letzte Samurai-Kriegerin. ZDF, abgerufen am Dezember Tomoe Gozen (japanisch 巴御前, deutsch etwa: „Dame Tomoe“; * um ; † um ), veraltet Tomowe, war eine der wenigen weiblichen Krieger (onna bugeisha) Jessica Amanda Salmonson: Tomoe, die Samurai, Bergisch Gladbach (englische Erstausgabe unter dem Titel Tomoe Gozen), ISBN. Zu Japans berühmtesten Samurai-Kriegern gehört eine Frau: Takeko Nakano ( - ). Ihr Heldentod in der Schlacht von Aizu machte sie zur. Zu Japans berühmtesten Samurai-Kriegern gehört eine Frau: Takeko Nakano. Ihr Heldentod in der Schlacht von Aizu machte sie zur.
Zu Japans berühmtesten Samurai-Kriegern gehört eine Frau: Takeko Nakano. Ihr Heldentod in der Schlacht von Aizu machte sie zur. Furchtlos. Stark. Tödlich. Die Samurai waren japanische Krieger. Sie trugen bemerkenswerte Rüstungen und einzigartige Waffen; und sie. Die Krieger wurden ursprünglich als Bushi, (wörtl. "Mann mit Waffen" oder "Bewaffneter") bezeichnet. Der Begriff "Samurai",(wörtl. "Dienender" oder "Im Dienste.
Samurai Kriegerin Der Weg des KriegersBewertet mit 4. Als sie während eines Kampfes in die Brust getroffen wurde, bat sie ihre 16 Jahre alte Schwester Aiko, ihr den Kopf abzutrennen und mitzunehmen. Wer sein Leben click to see more hingeben und den Tod nicht erwählen mag, https://jalaprt.co/slots-casino-free-online/beste-spielothek-in-neuershausen-finden.php ist kein wahrer Krieger. This web page bieten einen professionellen und kompetenten Kundenservice. Namensräume Artikel Diskussion. Bevor sie dem Wunsch ihres Herrn entsprach, hielt sie auf dem Schlachtfeld jedoch nach einem letzten, würdigen Gegner Ausschau. Anmerkung: Heute hat Japan eine der höchsten Suizidraten der Welt. Sie wurde Samurai Kriegerin Kampf- und literarischen Künsten Beste Spielothek in finden und von ihrem Lehrer Akaoka Daisuke adoptiert. Skip to navigation Skip to content.
Samurai Kriegerin NavigationsmenüWährend der Schlacht von Aizu kämpfte sie mit einem Naginata einer japanischen Stangenwaffe und war Anführerin einer Ad hoc Truppe von weiblichen Kämpferinnen, die unabhängig von den männlichen Aizu-Gefolgsleuten kämpften, da es ihnen nicht erlaubt war als Teil der offiziellen Amusing Robert Milkins are zu kämpfen. Tomoe Gozen war nicht die einzige weibliche More info in den Diensten Yoshinakas. Der Gunbaider Kommando- oder Signalfächer, war in der Schlacht ein wichtiges Kommunikationsmittel. Mehr Infos. Auch entschlossen sich viele Frauen, nachdem ihre Männer, Brüder, Söhne in einer Schlacht gefallen waren, Rache zu nehmen und zogen selbstständig in den Kampf. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Wer glaubt, jemand zu sein, der komme her Oktober war eine japanische Kämpferin des Fürstentums Aizudie während des Boshinkrieges kämpfte und starb. Wer sein Leben nicht hingeben und den Tod here erwählen mag, der Beste Spielothek in Hungen kein wahrer Samurai Kriegerin. - Erkunde Ulrike Greunkes Pinnwand „Japanische kriegerin“ auf Pinterest. Weitere Ideen zu Japanische kriegerin, Kriegerin, Weibliche samurai. - Samurai - Warrior - Krieger - Tattoo - Japan. Weitere Ideen zu Samurai, Kriegerin, Japanische kriegerin. Furchtlos. Stark. Tödlich. Die Samurai waren japanische Krieger. Sie trugen bemerkenswerte Rüstungen und einzigartige Waffen; und sie. Die Krieger wurden ursprünglich als Bushi, (wörtl. "Mann mit Waffen" oder "Bewaffneter") bezeichnet. Der Begriff "Samurai",(wörtl. "Dienender" oder "Im Dienste.
In both countries the terms were nominalized to mean 'those who serve in close attendance to the nobility', the Japanese term saburai being the nominal form of the verb.
By the end of the 12th century, samurai became almost entirely synonymous with bushi , and the word was closely associated with the middle and upper echelons of the warrior class.
The samurai were usually associated with a clan and their lord and were trained as officers in military tactics and grand strategy.
This edict allowed the Japanese aristocracy to adopt the Tang dynasty political structure, bureaucracy, culture, religion, and philosophy.
With an understanding of how the population was distributed, Emperor Monmu introduced a law whereby 1 in 3—4 adult males were drafted into the national military.
These soldiers were required to supply their own weapons, and in return were exempted from duties and taxes. Those of 6th rank and below were referred to as "samurai" and dealt with day-to-day affairs.
Although these "samurai" were civilian public servants, the modern word is believed [ by whom? Military men, however, would not be referred to as "samurai" for many more centuries.
At this time the 7th to 9th centuries , officials considered them to be merely a military section under the control of the Imperial Court.
Ultimately, Emperor Kanmu disbanded his army. From this time, the emperor's power gradually declined. While the emperor was still the ruler, powerful clans around Kyoto assumed positions as ministers, and their relatives bought positions as magistrates.
To amass wealth and repay their debts, magistrates often imposed heavy taxes, resulting in many farmers becoming landless. Some clans were originally formed by farmers who had taken up arms to protect themselves from the imperial magistrates sent to govern their lands and collect taxes.
These clans formed alliances to protect themselves against more powerful clans, and by the mid-Heian period, they had adopted characteristic armor and weapons.
In time they amassed enough manpower, resources and political backing, in the form of alliances with one another, to establish the first samurai-dominated government.
As the power of these regional clans grew, their chief was typically a distant relative of the emperor and a lesser member of either the Fujiwara , Minamoto , or Taira clan.
Though originally sent to provincial areas for fixed four-year terms as magistrates, the toryo declined to return to the capital when their terms ended, and their sons inherited their positions and continued to lead the clans in putting down rebellions throughout Japan during the middle- and later-Heian period.
Because of their rising military and economic power, the warriors ultimately became a new force in the politics of the imperial court.
The victor, Taira no Kiyomori , became an imperial advisor and was the first warrior to attain such a position. He eventually seized control of the central government, establishing the first samurai-dominated government and relegating the emperor to figurehead status.
However, the Taira clan was still very conservative when compared to its eventual successor, the Minamoto, and instead of expanding or strengthening its military might, the clan had its women marry emperors and exercise control through the emperor.
The Taira and the Minamoto clashed again in , beginning the Genpei War , which ended in The victorious Minamoto no Yoritomo established the superiority of the samurai over the aristocracy.
Instead of ruling from Kyoto, he set up the shogunate in Kamakura , near his base of power. Initially, their responsibility was restricted to arresting rebels and collecting needed army provisions and they were forbidden from interfering with Kokushi officials, but their responsibility gradually expanded.
Thus, the samurai class became the political ruling power in Japan. Various samurai clans struggled for power during the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates.
Zen Buddhism spread among the samurai in the 13th century and helped to shape their standards of conduct, particularly overcoming the fear of death and killing, but among the general populace Pure Land Buddhism was favored.
Japan mustered a mere 10, samurai to meet this threat. The invading army was harassed by major thunderstorms throughout the invasion, which aided the defenders by inflicting heavy casualties.
The Yuan army was eventually recalled, and the invasion was called off. The Mongol invaders used small bombs, which was likely the first appearance of bombs and gunpowder in Japan.
The Japanese defenders recognized the possibility of a renewed invasion and began construction of a great stone barrier around Hakata Bay in Completed in , this wall stretched for 20 kilometers around the border of the bay.
It would later serve as a strong defensive point against the Mongols. The Mongols attempted to settle matters in a diplomatic way from to , but every envoy sent to Japan was executed.
This continued defiance of the Mongol emperor set the stage for one of the most famous engagements in Japanese history.
In , a Yuan army of , men with 5, ships was mustered for another invasion of Japan. The casualties and damage inflicted by the typhoon, followed by the Japanese defense of the Hakata Bay barrier, resulted in the Mongols again being defeated.
The thunderstorms of and the typhoon of helped the samurai defenders of Japan repel the Mongol invaders despite being vastly outnumbered.
These winds became known as kami-no-Kaze , which literally translates as "wind of the gods". This is often given a simplified translation as "divine wind".
The kami-no-Kaze lent credence to the Japanese belief that their lands were indeed divine and under supernatural protection. During this period, the tradition of Japanese swordsmithing developed using laminated or piled steel , a technique dating back over 2, years in the Mediterranean and Europe of combining layers of soft and hard steel to produce a blade with a very hard but brittle edge, capable of being highly sharpened, supported by a softer, tougher, more flexible spine.
The Japanese swordsmiths refined this technique by using multiple layers of steel of varying composition, together with differential heat treatment , or tempering, of the finished blade, achieved by protecting part of it with a layer of clay while quenching as explained in the article on Japanese swordsmithing.
The craft was perfected in the 14th century by the great swordsmith Masamune. The Japanese sword katana became renowned around the world for its sharpness and resistance to breaking.
Many swords made using these techniques were exported across the East China Sea , a few making their way as far as India.
Issues of inheritance caused family strife as primogeniture became common, in contrast to the division of succession designated by law before the 14th century.
Invasions of neighboring samurai territories became common to avoid infighting, and bickering among samurai was a constant problem for the Kamakura and Ashikaga shogunates.
The Sengoku jidai "warring states period" was marked by the loosening of samurai culture, with people born into other social strata sometimes making a name for themselves as warriors and thus becoming de facto samurai.
Japanese war tactics and technologies improved rapidly in the 15th and 16th centuries. Use of large numbers of infantry called ashigaru "light-foot", because of their light armor , formed of humble warriors or ordinary people with naga yari a long lance or naginata , was introduced and combined with cavalry in maneuvers.
The number of people mobilized in warfare ranged from thousands to hundreds of thousands. The arquebus , a matchlock gun, was introduced by the Portuguese via a Chinese pirate ship in , and the Japanese succeeded in assimilating it within a decade.
Groups of mercenaries with mass-produced arquebuses began playing a critical role. By the end of the Sengoku period, several hundred thousand firearms existed in Japan, and massive armies numbering over , clashed in battles.
Oda Nobunaga was the well-known lord of the Nagoya area once called Owari Province and an exceptional example of a samurai of the Sengoku period.
Oda Nobunaga made innovations in the fields of organization and war tactics, made heavy use of arquebuses, developed commerce and industry, and treasured innovation.
Consecutive victories enabled him to realize the termination of the Ashikaga Bakufu and the disarmament of the military powers of the Buddhist monks, which had inflamed futile struggles among the populace for centuries.
Attacking from the "sanctuary" of Buddhist temples, they were constant headaches to any warlord and even the emperor who tried to control their actions.
He died in when one of his generals, Akechi Mitsuhide , turned upon him with his army. Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu , who founded the Tokugawa shogunate, were loyal followers of Nobunaga.
Hideyoshi began as a peasant and became one of Nobunaga's top generals, and Ieyasu had shared his childhood with Nobunaga.
Hideyoshi defeated Mitsuhide within a month and was regarded as the rightful successor of Nobunaga by avenging the treachery of Mitsuhide.
These two were able to use Nobunaga's previous achievements on which build a unified Japan and there was a saying: "The reunification is a rice cake; Oda made it.
Hashiba shaped it. In the end, only Ieyasu tastes it. Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who became a grand minister in , created a law that non-samurai were not allowed to carry weapons, which the samurai caste codified as permanent and hereditary, thereby ending the social mobility of Japan, which lasted until the dissolution of the Edo shogunate by the Meiji revolutionaries.
The distinction between samurai and non-samurai was so obscure that during the 16th century, most male adults in any social class even small farmers belonged to at least one military organization of their own and served in wars before and during Hideyoshi's rule.
It can be said that an "all against all" situation continued for a century. The authorized samurai families after the 17th century were those that chose to follow Nobunaga, Hideyoshi and Ieyasu.
In and again in , Toyotomi Hideyoshi, aiming to invade China through Korea, mobilized an army of , peasants and samurai and deployed them to Korea.
Taking advantage of arquebus mastery and extensive wartime experience from the Sengoku period, Japanese samurai armies made major gains in most of Korea.
Shimazu Yoshihiro led some 7, samurai and, despite being heavily outnumbered, defeated a host of allied Ming and Korean forces at the Battle of Sacheon in , near the conclusion of the campaigns.
Yoshihiro was feared as Oni-Shimazu "Shimazu ogre" and his nickname spread across Korea and into China.
In spite of the superiority of Japanese land forces, the two expeditions ultimately failed, though they did devastate the Korean peninsula.
The causes of the failure included Korean naval superiority which, led by Admiral Yi Sun-sin , harassed Japanese supply lines continuously throughout the wars, resulting in supply shortages on land , the commitment of sizable Ming forces to Korea, Korean guerrilla actions, wavering Japanese commitment to the campaigns as the wars dragged on, and the underestimation of resistance by Japanese commanders.
In the first campaign of , Korean defenses on land were caught unprepared, under-trained, and under-armed; they were rapidly overrun, with only a limited number of successfully resistant engagements against the more experienced and battle-hardened Japanese forces.
During the second campaign in , however, Korean and Ming forces proved far more resilient and, with the support of continued Korean naval superiority, managed to limit Japanese gains to parts of southeastern Korea.
The final death blow to the Japanese campaigns in Korea came with Hideyoshi's death in late and the recall of all Japanese forces in Korea by the Council of Five Elders established by Hideyoshi to oversee the transition from his regency to that of his son Hideyori.
Social mobility was high, as the ancient regime collapsed and emerging samurai needed to maintain a large military and administrative organizations in their areas of influence.
Most of the samurai families that survived to the 19th century originated in this era, declaring themselves to be the blood of one of the four ancient noble clans: Minamoto , Taira , Fujiwara and Tachibana.
In most cases, however, it is difficult to prove these claims. During the Tokugawa shogunate, samurai increasingly became courtiers, bureaucrats, and administrators rather than warriors.
With no warfare since the early 17th century, samurai gradually lost their military function during the Tokugawa era also called the Edo period.
They were strongly emphasized by the teachings of Confucius and Mencius , which were required reading for the educated samurai class.
The leading figures who introduced Confucianism in Japan in the early Tokugawa period were Fujiwara Seika — , Hayashi Razan — , and Matsunaga Sekigo — The conduct of samurai served as role model behavior for the other social classes.
With time on their hands, samurai spent more time in pursuit of other interests such as becoming scholars. The relative peace of the Tokugawa era was shattered with the arrival of Commodore Matthew Perry 's massive U.
Navy steamships in Perry used his superior firepower to force Japan to open its borders to trade.
Prior to that only a few harbor towns, under strict control from the shogunate, were allowed to participate in Western trade, and even then, it was based largely on the idea of playing the Franciscans and Dominicans against one another in exchange for the crucial arquebus technology, which in turn was a major contributor to the downfall of the classical samurai.
From , the samurai army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto.
French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. In the s, Samurai comprised five percent of the population, or , families with about 1.
They came under direct national jurisdiction in , and of all the classes during the Meiji revolution they were the most affected. A priority of the Meiji government was to gradually abolish the entire class of samurai and integrate them into the Japanese professional, military and business classes.
The main goal was to provide enough financial liquidity to enable former samurai to invest in land and industry.
A military force capable of contesting not just China but the imperial powers required a large conscript army that closely followed Western standards.
Germany became the model. The notion of very strict obedience to chain of command was incompatible with the individual authority of the samurai.
The right to wear a katana in public was abolished, along with the right to execute commoners who paid them disrespect.
In , there was a localized samurai rebellion that was quickly crushed. Younger samurai often became exchange students because they were ambitious, literate and well-educated.
On return, some started private schools for higher educations, while many samurai became reporters and writers and set up newspaper companies.
The philosophies of Buddhism and Zen , and to a lesser extent Confucianism and Shinto , influenced the samurai culture. Zen meditation became an important teaching because it offered a process to calm one's mind.
The Buddhist concept of reincarnation and rebirth led samurai to abandon torture and needless killing, while some samurai even gave up violence altogether and became Buddhist monks after coming to believe that their killings were fruitless.
Some were killed as they came to terms with these conclusions in the battlefield. The most defining role that Confucianism played in samurai philosophy was to stress the importance of the lord-retainer relationship—the loyalty that a samurai was required to show his lord.
Suzuki, no doubt the single most important figure in the spread of Zen in the West. In the first place, the nation with which we have had to do here surpasses in goodness any of the nations lately discovered.
I really think that among barbarous nations there can be none that has more natural goodness than the Japanese. They are of a kindly disposition, not at all given to cheating, wonderfully desirous of honour and rank.
Honour with them is placed above everything else. There are a great many poor among them, but poverty is not a disgrace to any one.
There is one thing among them of which I hardly know whether it is practised anywhere among Christians. The nobles, however poor they may be, receive the same honour from the rest as if they were rich.
First, a man whose profession is the use of arms should think and then act upon not only his own fame, but also that of his descendants.
He should not scandalize his name forever by holding his one and only life too dear One's main purpose in throwing away his life is to do so either for the sake of the Emperor or in some great undertaking of a military general.
It is that exactly that will be the great fame of one's descendants. In , Imagawa Sadayo wrote a letter of admonishment to his brother stressing the importance of duty to one's master.
Imagawa was admired for his balance of military and administrative skills during his lifetime, and his writings became widespread.
It is forbidden to forget the great debt of kindness one owes to his master and ancestors and thereby make light of the virtues of loyalty and filial piety It is forbidden that one should There is a primary need to distinguish loyalty from disloyalty and to establish rewards and punishments.
Similarly, the feudal lord Takeda Nobushige — stated: "In matters both great and small, one should not turn his back on his master's commands One should not ask for gifts or enfiefments from the master No matter how unreasonably the master may treat a man, he should not feel disgruntled An underling does not pass judgments on a superior.
Nobushige's brother Takeda Shingen — also made similar observations: "One who was born in the house of a warrior, regardless of his rank or class, first acquaints himself with a man of military feats and achievements in loyalty Everyone knows that if a man doesn't hold filial piety toward his own parents he would also neglect his duties toward his lord.
Such a neglect means a disloyalty toward humanity. Therefore such a man doesn't deserve to be called 'samurai'.
The feudal lord Asakura Yoshikage — wrote: "In the fief of the Asakura, one should not determine hereditary chief retainers. A man should be assigned according to his ability and loyalty.
By his civility, "all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. He commanded most of Japan's major clans during the invasion of Korea.
In a handbook he addressed to "all samurai, regardless of rank", he told his followers that a warrior's only duty in life was to "grasp the long and the short swords and to die".
He also ordered his followers to put forth great effort in studying the military classics, especially those related to loyalty and filial piety.
He is best known for his quote:  "If a man does not investigate into the matter of Bushido daily, it will be difficult for him to die a brave and manly death.
Thus it is essential to engrave this business of the warrior into one's mind well. He stated that it was shameful for any man to have not risked his life at least once in the line of duty, regardless of his rank.
Nabeshima's sayings were passed down to his son and grandson and became the basis for Tsunetomo Yamamoto 's Hagakure. He is best known for his saying "The way of the samurai is in desperateness.
Ten men or more cannot kill such a man. Torii Mototada — was a feudal lord in the service of Tokugawa Ieyasu. On the eve of the battle of Sekigahara , he volunteered to remain behind in the doomed Fushimi Castle while his lord advanced to the east.
Torii and Tokugawa both agreed that the castle was indefensible. In an act of loyalty to his lord, Torii chose to remain behind, pledging that he and his men would fight to the finish.
As was custom, Torii vowed that he would not be taken alive. In a dramatic last stand, the garrison of 2, men held out against overwhelming odds for ten days against the massive army of Ishida Mitsunari's 40, warriors.
In a moving last statement to his son Tadamasa, he wrote: . It goes without saying that to sacrifice one's life for the sake of his master is an unchanging principle.
That I should be able to go ahead of all the other warriors of this country and lay down my life for the sake of my master's benevolence is an honor to my family and has been my most fervent desire for many years.
It is said that both men cried when they parted ways, because they knew they would never see each other again. Torii's father and grandfather had served the Tokugawa before him, and his own brother had already been killed in battle.
Torii's actions changed the course of Japanese history. Ieyasu Tokugawa successfully raised an army and won at Sekigahara. The translator of Hagakure , William Scott Wilson , observed examples of warrior emphasis on death in clans other than Yamamoto's: "he Takeda Shingen was a strict disciplinarian as a warrior, and there is an exemplary story in the Hagakure relating his execution of two brawlers, not because they had fought, but because they had not fought to the death".
The rival of Takeda Shingen — was Uesugi Kenshin — , a legendary Sengoku warlord well-versed in the Chinese military classics and who advocated the "way of the warrior as death".
Japanese historian Daisetz Teitaro Suzuki describes Uesugi's beliefs as: "Those who are reluctant to give up their lives and embrace death are not true warriors Go to the battlefield firmly confident of victory, and you will come home with no wounds whatever.
Engage in combat fully determined to die and you will be alive; wish to survive in the battle and you will surely meet death. When you leave the house determined not to see it again you will come home safely; when you have any thought of returning you will not return.
You may not be in the wrong to think that the world is always subject to change, but the warrior must not entertain this way of thinking, for his fate is always determined.
Families such as the Imagawa were influential in the development of warrior ethics and were widely quoted by other lords during their lifetime.
Historian H. Paul Varley notes the description of Japan given by Jesuit leader St. Francis Xavier : "There is no nation in the world which fears death less.
He also observed: "The Japanese are much braver and more warlike than the people of China, Korea, Ternate and all of the other nations around the Philippines.
In December , Francis was in Malacca Malaysia waiting to return to Goa India when he met a low-ranked samurai named Anjiro possibly spelled "Yajiro".
Anjiro was not an intellectual, but he impressed Xavier because he took careful notes of everything he said in church.
Xavier made the decision to go to Japan in part because this low-ranking samurai convinced him in Portuguese that the Japanese people were highly educated and eager to learn.
They were hard workers and respectful of authority. In their laws and customs they were led by reason, and, should the Christian faith convince them of its truth, they would accept it en masse.
By the 12th century, upper-class samurai were highly literate because of the general introduction of Confucianism from China during the 7th to 9th centuries and in response to their perceived need to deal with the imperial court, who had a monopoly on culture and literacy for most of the Heian period.
As a result, they aspired to the more cultured abilities of the nobility. Examples such as Taira Tadanori a samurai who appears in the Heike Monogatari demonstrate that warriors idealized the arts and aspired to become skilled in them.
Tadanori was famous for his skill with the pen and the sword or the "bun and the bu", the harmony of fighting and learning.
By the time of the Edo period, Japan had a higher literacy comparable to that in central Europe. The number of men who actually achieved the ideal and lived their lives by it was high.
The Heike Monogatari makes reference to the educated poet-swordsman ideal in its mention of Taira no Tadanori's death: .
In his book "Ideals of the Samurai" translator William Scott Wilson states: "The warriors in the Heike Monogatari served as models for the educated warriors of later generations, and the ideals depicted by them were not assumed to be beyond reach.
Rather, these ideals were vigorously pursued in the upper echelons of warrior society and recommended as the proper form of the Japanese man of arms.
With the Heike Monogatari, the image of the Japanese warrior in literature came to its full maturity. Plenty of warrior writings document this ideal from the 13th century onward.
Most warriors aspired to or followed this ideal otherwise there would have been no cohesion in the samurai armies. As aristocrats for centuries, samurai developed their own cultures that influenced Japanese culture as a whole.
The culture associated with the samurai such as the tea ceremony , monochrome ink painting, rock gardens and poetry was adopted by warrior patrons throughout the centuries — These practices were adapted from the Chinese arts.
Zen monks introduced them to Japan and they were allowed to flourish due to the interest of powerful warrior elites. Another Ashikaga patron of the arts was Yoshimasa.
His cultural advisor, the Zen monk Zeami, introduced the tea ceremony to him. Previously, tea had been used primarily for Buddhist monks to stay awake during meditation.
In general, samurai, aristocrats, and priests had a very high literacy rate in kanji. Recent studies have shown that literacy in kanji among other groups in society was somewhat higher than previously understood.
For example, court documents, birth and death records and marriage records from the Kamakura period, submitted by farmers, were prepared in Kanji.
Both the kanji literacy rate and skills in math improved toward the end of Kamakura period.
Some samurai had buke bunko , or "warrior library", a personal library that held texts on strategy, the science of warfare, and other documents that would have proved useful during the warring era of feudal Japan.
One such library held 20, volumes. The upper class had Kuge bunko , or "family libraries", that held classics, Buddhist sacred texts, and family histories, as well as genealogical records.
Literacy was generally high among the warriors and the common classes as well. The feudal lord Asakura Norikage — AD noted the great loyalty given to his father, due to his polite letters, not just to fellow samurai, but also to the farmers and townspeople:.
There were to Lord Eirin's character many high points difficult to measure, but according to the elders the foremost of these was the way he governed the province by his civility.
It goes without saying that he acted this way toward those in the samurai class, but he was also polite in writing letters to the farmers and townspeople, and even in addressing these letters he was gracious beyond normal practice.
In this way, all were willing to sacrifice their lives for him and become his allies. In a letter dated 29 January , St Francis Xavier observed the ease of which the Japanese understood prayers due to the high level of literacy in Japan at that time:.
There are two kinds of writing in Japan, one used by men and the other by women; and for the most part both men and women, especially of the nobility and the commercial class, have a literary education.
The bonzes, or bonzesses, in their monasteries teach letters to the girls and boys, though rich and noble persons entrust the education of their children to private tutors.
Most of them can read, and this is a great help to them for the easy understanding of our usual prayers and the chief points of our holy religion.
In a letter to Father Ignatius Loyola at Rome , Xavier further noted the education of the upper classes:. The Nobles send their sons to monasteries to be educated as soon as they are 8 years old, and they remain there until they are 19 or 20, learning reading, writing and religion; as soon as they come out, they marry and apply themselves to politics.
They are discreet, magnanimous and lovers of virtue and letters, honouring learned men very much.
In a letter dated 11 November , Xavier described a multi-tiered educational system in Japan consisting of "universities", "colleges", "academies" and hundreds of monasteries that served as a principal center for learning by the populace:.
But now we must give you an account of our stay at Cagoxima. We put into that port because the wind was adverse to our sailing to Meaco, which is the largest city in Japan, and most famous as the residence of the King and the Princes.
It is said that after four months are passed the favourable season for a voyage to Meaco will return, and then with the good help of God we shall sail thither.
The distance from Cagoxima is three hundred leagues. We hear wonderful stories about the size of Meaco: they say that it consists of more than ninety thousand dwellings.
There is a very famous University there, as well as five chief colleges of students, and more than two hundred monasteries of bonzes, and of others who are like coenobites, called Legioxi, as well as of women of the same kind, who are called Hamacutis.
These are situated round Meaco, with short distances between them, and each is frequented by about three thousand five hundred scholars.
Besides these there is the Academy at Bandou, much the largest and most famous in all Japan, and at a great distance from Meaco.
Bandou is a large territory, ruled by six minor princes, one of whom is more powerful than the others and is obeyed by them, being himself subject to the King of Japan, who is called the Great King of Meaco.
The things that are given out as to the greatness and celebrity of these universities and cities are so wonderful as to make us think of seeing them first with our own eyes and ascertaining the truth, and then when we have discovered and know how things really are, of writing an account of them to you.
They say that there are several lesser academies besides those which we have mentioned. A samurai was usually named by combining one kanji from his father or grandfather and one new kanji.
Samurai normally used only a small part of their total name. A man was addressed by his family name and his title, or by his yobina if he did not have a title.
However, the nanori was a private name that could be used by only a very few, including the emperor. Samurai could choose their own nanori and frequently changed their names to reflect their allegiances.
Samurai had arranged marriages, which were arranged by a go-between of the same or higher rank. While for those samurai in the upper ranks this was a necessity as most had few opportunities to meet women , this was a formality for lower-ranked samurai.
Most samurai married women from a samurai family, but for lower-ranked samurai, marriages with commoners were permitted. In these marriages a dowry was brought by the woman and was used to set up the couple's new household.
A samurai could take concubines , but their backgrounds were checked by higher-ranked samurai. In many cases, taking a concubine was akin to a marriage.
Kidnapping a concubine, although common in fiction, would have been shameful, if not criminal. If the concubine was a commoner, a messenger was sent with betrothal money or a note for exemption of tax to ask for her parents' acceptance.
Even though the woman would not be a legal wife, a situation normally considered a demotion, many wealthy merchants believed that being the concubine of a samurai was superior to being the legal wife of a commoner.
When a merchant's daughter married a samurai, her family's money erased the samurai's debts, and the samurai's social status improved the standing of the merchant family.
If a samurai's commoner concubine gave birth to a son, the son could inherit his father's social status.
A samurai could divorce his wife for a variety of reasons with approval from a superior, but divorce was, while not entirely nonexistent, a rare event.
A wife's failure to produce a son was cause for divorce, but adoption of a male heir was considered an acceptable alternative to divorce.
A samurai could divorce for personal reasons, even if he simply did not like his wife, but this was generally avoided as it would embarrass the person who had arranged the marriage.
A woman could also arrange a divorce, although it would generally take the form of the samurai divorcing her. Die Geschichte der japanischen Samurai wird meist als Geschichte von Männern erzählt.
Dabei kämpften auch viele Frauen in ihren Reihen. Aufwändige Spielszenen, Historiker und heutige Kampfkunst-Experten rekonstruieren die Lebensgeschichte von Takeko Nakano, die zeigt, dass Frauen in Japan auch als Kriegerinnen eine wichtige Rolle spielten.
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